Revolutionary Struggle and Ideology of the Communist Party of the Philippines

What is Communist Party of the Philippines?

The CPP and its armed wing, the New People’s Army, fight for the immediate and basic wants of the workers, peasants and other elements exploited by capitalists. It combines the armed struggle with mass base building and organs of political power in the countryside.

In 1968 the Party launched a “second rectification movement” to criticize and correct the deviations of leading cadres from its fundamental principles. These deviations led to a number of grave setbacks in the revolutionary struggle.


The CPP upholds and creatively applies Marxism-Leninism in the concrete practice of the Philippine revolution. It develops legal mass organizations of workers, peasants and youth, establishes guerrilla zones in selected strategic areas nationwide and carries out criticism and self-criticism with the aim of firming up unity and heightening the revolutionary struggle.

The armed struggle hews to the strategic line of encircling the cities from the countryside over a protracted period of time, until sufficient forces are accumulated in the countryside to smash the city defenders. This is compatible with the development of the basic worker-peasant alliance and the organs of political power in the countryside.

The CPP seeks whatever moral and material support it can from abroad, but is conscious of its independence and utmost self-reliance. It upholds proletarian internationalism and supports all anti-imperialist and progressive forces worldwide. The revolutionary movement should be prepared to thwart any escalation of US aggression and shift from a civil war to a people’s war in case of an outright war of aggression.


Since its reestablishment in 1968, the CPP has built the New People’s Army and peasant movement as the basic working-class and peasant alliance in carrying out armed struggle and building the organs of political power in the countryside; based on this it waged legal and illegal struggles; and developed a general line on a people’s war against US imperialism and local reactionaries. This solved in practice and theoretically the particular problem of waging people’s war in an archipelagic country, converting the initial disadvantage of encircling cities from the countryside into a long-term strategic advantage.

The CPP has exposed the semicolonial and semifeudal character of Philippine society; laid bare the general class line of national democratic revolution against US imperialism and local reactionaries; criticized and repudiated the erroneous lines of the Lavas and Tarucs; and built itself on the theory of Marxism–Leninism and the general line of proletarian internationalism. It seeks from abroad whatever moral and material support is possible, but always on the basis of self-reliance and the principle of the greatest possible autonomy for the revolutionary struggle in the Philippines.


The CPP is guided by the theory of Marxism-Leninism. It has waged revolutionary armed struggle and led the New People’s Army, and now it leads the national democratic front in its drive for total victory over the US-installed fascist dictatorship through protracted people’s war.

The party has the greatest mass base of all revolutionary forces in the Philippines. It is able to mobilize millions of workers and peasants to join the national democratic revolution.

Thousands of Party cadres have deep understanding of the basic analysis of dialectical and historic materialism, the critique of capitalism and modern imperialism and the theory of scientific socialism. They are ready to issue propaganda and conduct agitation in their specific areas of work. They can analyze issues and make decisions based on the concrete conditions of the Philippine revolution. This enables them to lead the NPA and other revolutionary mass organizations, alliances and local organs of political power in the drive for total victory over the dictatorship.

Political Activity

In its political work, the CPP is guided by its theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism. It is conscious of the oppression and exploitation of national minorities and upholds their right to self-determination as a fundamental basis for united front work. It integrates their struggle into the overall revolution. It has built the New People’s Army and organs of political power in the countryside, realizing the basic worker-peasant alliance.

The party’s guerilla warfare is conducted through its revolutionary mass organization, the National Democratic Front, which embraces urban-based legal masses and the underground mass movement. It is based on the principle of organs of political power built at the village level and the formation of united front committees at higher levels. It also seeks to mobilize the masses of the Filipino people of different nationalities and ethno-linguistic groups to carry out a national democratic revolution and advance toward socialist revolution.

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